The Influence of Cézanne on Adrien Hébert
by Jean-René Ostiguy
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1 The signatures and dates, written in pen and India ink, were probably a
belated addition by the artist.
2 Works by Moret and Maufra were included in the catalogue of the Exposition
d'art français, presented by the Art Association
of Montreal in December 1909 and January 1910, when the artist was a student in the city.
3 The idea for this magazine, whose title refers to a three-pronged
harpoon made by North American Indian people, came about as a result of
friendly encounters between various intellectuals and artists, including
Adrien Hébert, after their return from Europe in 1914.
4 Jane Mortier, a concert artist, gave a recital in Montreal on 27 February 1918.
See Léo-Pol Morin's article, "Mme Jane Mortier, salle du YMCA, le
27 février, "Le Nigog, Vol. l, no.3 (March 1918), pp. 103-105.
5 Robert Mortier, "Cézanne," Le Nigog, Vol. 1, no.4 (April
1918), pp. 119-120.
6 Cézanne's bibliography, which may be consulted either in Venturi's Cézanne, son art; son oeuvre
(ed. Paul Rosenberg, Paris,
1936) or in the small catalogue of the Cézanne exhibition at the
Musée de l'Orangerie in 1936, includes only twenty articles in French-language
magazines before 1918. Unless I am mistaken, none of these articles is
7 See the reproductions of his works in Édouard Joseph's Dictionnaire
biographique, Vol. III, p. 61.
8 See note 6. Other explanations come to mind For instance, Hébert
may have obtained the revised edition of Ambroise Vollard's Paul Cézanne
(Paris: G. Crès, 1919). Nothing is known of any visits Hébert
may have made to well- known American museums. 1t should be noted, however,
that the Metropolitan Museum of Art acquired its first Cézanne in
1913 and did not buy any more works by the Master of Aix until 1929.
9 The collection, the only one of its kind in Canada, may have been
donated by Pauline Rolland or by Adrien himself after Henri's death in
1950. There is also a stock of documentation on Adrien Hébert in
the Salle Gagnon.
10 Paul Dumas, "Exposition rétrospective d'Adrien Hébert,"
L'information médicale et paramédicale (Montreal),
Vol. XXIII, no. 21 (21 September 1971), pp. 18-19.
11 "Exposition de tableaux et d'études. Remarquable exposition
de peintures par Adrien Hébert au Cercle universitaire. Un robuste
talent," La Presse, 29 December 1921, p. 9.
12 Fernand Préfontaine returned to Montreal on 6 November 1921 for the funeral
of his first wife, Rose Anne Bélanger, who died on 6 October in
Paris. See La Presse, 25 October 1921, p. 9.
13 In this connection, see Ellen C. Oppler, Fauvism Re-examined (New York and London: Gar1and Publishing, 1976), pp. 282-285.
14 Reported to the author by Bernadette Guillemette, who has written
scholarly work on Fernand Préfontaine.
15 See En cherchant mes souvenirs 1911-1940, (Montreal. Éditions
Fidès, 1968), pp. 96-97.
16 See the articles by François Fosca and Raymond Escholier
in the magazine Art et Décoration, November 1921, p. 174,
and November 1922, p. 169.
17 See Paul Dumas' tribute in his article, "Exposition rétrospective
d'Adrien Hébert," loc. cit.
18 Postcard from Adrien Hébert to Pauline Hébert, dated 20 May 1923
(archives of the Hébert family, Montreal).
19 Henri Girard, "Adrien Hébert, le poète du port de
Montréal," in La Revue Moderne (Montreal), Oecember 1933.
20 In Quebec, as in the United States (T. Benton) and Mexico (D. Rivera),
the abandonment of the forms of Cézanne that lead to Cubism was prompted
by a desire to adapt to the experiences of another continent.
21 Adrien Hébert, "Existe-t-il une peinture d'interprétation
spécifiquement canadienne-française?" Culture, Vol.
III ( 1942), pp. 301-302.
22 Louis Vauxcelles in Cil Blas, 30 September 1908, quoted in
Ellen C. Oppler, op. cit., p. 308.
23 In reviewing the Salon d'Automne of 1921, Waldemar George commented on
Favory's painting Le Repos (see L'amour de l'art, No. 10,
p. 311), referring to the artist's "predilection for the great themes."
Many art historians have elaborated on the meaning of this phrase, including
René Huyghe and Jean Rudel in their articles on the "escapists from
Cubism." Two factors help explain the return to humanity in French art.
an easing of tension in the postwar era, and the rise, later on, of the
"Vie Nouvelle" movement.
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