The Shepherd Paris of
| Français | Introduction
by John D. Bandiera
| 4 | 5
Research for this paper was funded by a General University Research Grant from the
University of Delaware. I am indebted to Professor William I. Homer of the
Art History Department of the University of Delaware for his kindness and
support, to my colleague Professor Bonna Wescoat for her help in locating
antique sources for The Shepherd Paris, and to Miss Katherine Kotner
for her invaluable service as a research assistant.
1 For the most recent, and thorough, discussion of the art and life of Jean-Germain
Drouais, the reader is directed to Académie de France à Rome, David et Rome,
catalogue (Rome: De Luca Editore, 1981), pp.194-212.
The text and catalogue entries by Régis Michel are a rich source
of historical information and bibliography. Another useful source is The
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, French Painting 1774-1830: The Age of Revolution,
catalogue, text by Jacques Vilain (Detroit:
Wayne State University Press, 1975 ), pp. 400-403.
2 "Nécrologie. Éloge de M. Drouais, Élève
de l'Académie Royale de Peinture," Journal de Paris, no.
(28 ApriI1788), p. 526.
3 Drouais' death was probably due to smallpox. In addition to the "Nécrologie"
Journal de Paris (loc. cit.), a lengthy tribute was
published in Memorie per le Belle Arti (October 1788). See also
"Éloge Historique de M. Drouais, Élève de l'Académie
Royale de Peinture," Mercure de France (7 June 1788 ), pp. 35-40.
In memory of his departed friend and disciple, David erected a small mausoleum
(that he visited every morning) to house Drouais' letters. (Ref. Alexandre
Lenoir, Musée des Monumens Français [Paris, 1806],
pp. 144-145; and Jacques-Louis-Jules David, Le Peintre Louis David [Paris,
1880], p. 53). Drouais' fellow pensionnaires pooled their resources to
erect a monument to him in the church of Santa Maria in Via Lata in Rome.
It was executed by the sculptor Michallon and consists of a stele with
bas-relief figures of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture inscribing Drouais' name below a portrait medallion. For more on the Monument to Drouais, see Alexandre Lenoir,
op. cit., pp. 139-147; E.F. Miel, "Notice sur Jean-Germain
Drouais peintre d'Histoire," Annales de la Société libre
des beaux-arts pour 1837 ( Paris, 1837), pp. 13-14; and François
Bergot, "Tombeau en l'Honneur de Jean-Germain Drouais," La Revue du
Louvre 26 (1976), p. 379.
4 D. and G. Wildenstein, Documents complémentaires au Catalogue de
de Louis David (Paris, 1973), p. 157.
5 Drouais competed for the Grand Prix de Rome for the first time in
1783. But, dissatisfied with his picture, The Resurrection of the Son of the Widow of
Nain, he cut it in half and carried the two pieces to
David. David ( ref. D. and G. Wildenstein, loc. cit.) describes his reaction
and Drouais' response: "Qu'avez vous fait, lui dis-je, mon ami, c'est le
prix que vous donnez à un autre, c'est à merveille, il y
a des choses que vous ne ferez jamais mieux, c'est admirable! Quoi, monsieur,
vous êtes content, en ce cas c'est le prix, je n'en ambitionne pas d'autre, je suis charmé qu'un autre moins riche que moi en profite,
nous aurons chacun le prix qui nous convient." In the end, no Grand Prix
de Rome for painting was awarded in 1783.
6 See Metropolitan Museum of Art, op. cit., p. 401; and
David, op. cit., p. 27.
7 For a detailed discussion of Marius at Minturnae, as well
as a complete bibliography, the reader is directed to. Académie
de France à Rome, op. cit., pp. 208-209; Metropolitan Museum of
Art, op. cit., pp. 401-403; and National Gallery of Art, Washington, The
Eye of Thomas Jefferson, catalogue (Board of Trustees, National Gallery
of Art, 1976), p. 191.
8 For illustrations of one preparatory drawing for The Departure
of Gaius Gracchus and the Piroli print, see Académie de France
à Rome, op. cit., p. 199. For a discussion, see ibid., pp. 203-204. Rad it been completed, The Departure of Gaius Gracchus would
have marked Drouais' artistic maturation, as well as the complete emergence
in his art of 'Poussinism' with 'Davidian' neoclassicism. Despite the
fact that it was never finished, The Departure of Gaius Gracchus exerted
a considerable influence. This is seen in two plaster reliefs (Paris, École
des Beaux-Arts) depicting this same subject (executed for the Prix de Rome
competition of 1801) by J. Ch. Marin and E. D. Milhomme. Ref. Philippe Bordes,
"Les Arts après la Terreur: Topino-Lebrun, Rennequin et la peinture
politique sous le Directoire," La Revue du Louvre ( 1979 ), p. 201.
9 Metropolitan Museum of Art, op. cit., p. 401.
10 Most of these drawings are in the collection of the Musée de
contained in two large bound volumes entitled 1'album Drouais (
Inv. 74.73.1 à 335). Most of the drawings by Drouais (there are
also hundreds of works by his contemporaries) are signed with his initial
"D". The albums, acquired in 1974, have an interesting history. They were
given by Drouais' descendants to his friend, the sculptor Félix
Fortin (1763-1832). At Fortin's death, they were purchased by Pierre-Maximilien
Delafontaine (1774-1860), a painter, furniture-maker, and former student of
Jacques-Louis David. The whereabouts of the albums from the death of
Delafontaine to 1974 are unknown. There has been only one publication dealing
with the Drouais Albums: Ariette Serullaz, "À propos d'un album
de dessins de Jean-Germain Drouais au musée de Rennes," La Revue
du Louvre 26 (1976), pp. 380-387.
11 The most problematic of the works attributed to Drouais is
another version of The Resurrection of the Son of the Widow of Nain (Aix-en-Provence,
Musée Granet ). I agree with Régis Michel (in Académie
de France à Rome, op. cit., p. 201) that the attribution of this
(rather clumsy) work to Drouais is absurd. Almost as questionable are a
medium-sized painting of a male nude seen from behind (Musée de
Rouen, donation Baderou), and a version of Marius at Minturnae (Paris,
Ulysse Moussalli Collection) that is certainly a copy. An interesting and
unexpected side of Drouais' oeuvre has been revealed by two promising works
that recently came to light: a Self-Portrait ( Madrid, private collection;
see Juan J. Luna, "Un Autorretrato de Jean-Germain Drouais, en Madrid," Archivo
de Arte 52 , pp. 195-197), and Portrait of an Architect
York, private collection). To this list must be added several oil sketches
that require further investigation: The Young Warrior Sacrificing to
the Gods ( Musée de Carcassonne); Marius at Minturnae? (Musée de Rouen, donation Baderou );
Unknown Classical Subject (Roman Woman Reading a Letter -
Musée des beaux-arts de Lille);
Unknown Classical Subject (The Departure of Gaius Gracchus? -
et F. de Jonge Antiquaires, Scy-Chazelles).
Next Page | Notes 12 to 32
1 | 2 | 3 |
4 | 5
Top of this page
Index | Author
& Subject | Credits | Contact
This digital collection
was produced under contract to Canada's Digital Collections program,
Collections Program, Copyright
© National Gallery of