Modern Gothic in Canada
| Français | Introduction
by R. H. Hubbard
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1 Cf: Alan Gowans, Building Canada, an Architectural History of
Canadian Life (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1966), pp. 115, 132-134,
2 The Building News, 8 April, 20 May, 27 May,
3 June, 10 June, 24 June, 22 July 1892 ; Ralph Adams Cram, Church Building,
a Study of the Principles of Architecture in their Relation to the Church,
3rd ed. (Boston: Marshall Jones, 1924), pls cxxi, cxxiv; Journal,
Royal Architectural Institute of Canada (JRAIC), vol. v, no.10 (October
1928), pp. 376-378; Basil F. L. Clark, Anglican Cathedrals Outside the
British Isles (London: SPCK, 1948), pp. 81-93.
3 The author is indebted to Mr. W. E. Ireland, Provincial
Librarian and Archivist, Victoria, B.C., for additional information on
Keith's biography and on the Victoria competition. Born at Nairn, Keith
lived at Lincoln and at Wallasey, Cheshire; he studied with Alexander
Ross (architect of Inverness Cathedral) and in London. JRAIC, vol.
XVIII, no. 1 (January 1941), p. 14 (obituary).
4 JRAIC, vol. XIV, no. 6 (June 1937), pp. 106-108.
5 "Trinity College Chapel, Toronto, Ontario," JRAIC, vol. XXXIII, no. 12 (December 1956), pp. 466-467.
6 Charles D. Maginnis, ed., The Work of Cram and Ferguson, Architects (New York: Pencil Points Press, 1929); Ralph
Adams Cram, ed., American Church Building of Today (New York: Architectural
Publishing Co., 1929); Arthur Tappan North, ed., Ralph Adams Cram (New
York: Whittlesey House, 1931); Ralph Adams Cram, My Life in Architecture (Boston: Little, Brown, 1936).
7 Cram, Church Building, chs. I-X.
8 Ibid., chs. XI-XIII; Cram, My Life in Architecture,
9 Henry-Russell Hitchcock, Architecture: Nineteenth and
Twentieth Centuries (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1958), p. 400.
10 Peter Anson, Fashions in Church Furnishings, 1840-1940
(London: Faith Press, 1960), p. 300.
11 "Accepted Design for Halifax Cathedral," Christian Art,
vol. l (1907), pp. 14-15; Royal Architect, vol. IV, no.3 (March 1911), drawing reproduced p. 107; Cram,
p. 245; Clark, op. cit., p. 53; Anson, op. cit., pp.
12 Cram, My Life in Architecture, p. 74; R. L. Daniels, Saint Mary's Church,
Walkerville (Windsor, Ontario: 1954).
13 Cram, Church Building, p. 222.
14 Ibid., p. 245; Clark, op. cit., p. 61.
15 Another American architect represented in Canada is Charles
Donagh Maginnis (1869-1955), whom Cram admired (Church Building, pp.
239, 243, 320, 322). The Church of the Ascension, Westmount, Montreal, was
designed by Maginnis & Walsh in 1928 (JRAIC, vol. v, no.6 [June
1928], pp. 212-213, fig. 5).
16 J. M. Lyle, "Sproatt & Rolph, and Appreciation," JRAIC, vol. II, no. 4 (July-August 1925), pp. 126-127; C. T. Currelly, "Henry
Sproatt, 1867-1934," JRAIC, vol. XI, no. 10 (October 1934), p. 151; Ian
Montagnes, An Uncommon
Fel1owship, the Story of Hart House (Toronto:
University of Toronto Press, 1969), pp. 20 ff.
17 The precise nature of Sproatt's association with Cram is
not clear. Some accounts (Montagnes, op. cit., p. 20) state that
he worked in the office of Cram & Goodhue in New York; but the period
of his sojurn (1886-1888) antedates Cram's opening of an office in Boston
(1890), let alone New York. It would be unlikely in any case that Sproatt
would have been a pupil of a man of his own age. The two young men could,
however, have met in New York at the time of the competition for the Cathedral
of St John the Divine (1887).
18 E.g. the Renaissance design of the Canada Life Assurance building,
Toronto, and the Regency of the National Research Council, Ottawa.
19 Quote din Currelly, op. cit.
20 Sixth Exhibition of the Toronto Society of Architects (Toronto,
1912) (TSA), nos 220, 221, 225, the library illustrated p. 47; C. H. C.
Wright, "The University of Toronto," JRAIC, vol. II, no.1 (January-February
1925), p. 12, Burwash Hall illustrated p. 10; R. H. Hubbard, The National
Gallery of Canada Catalogue of Paintings and Sculpture, Vol. 3 (Ottawa;
1960), p. 415 (drawing for Burwash Hall and residences reproduced);
Vincent Massey, What's Past is Prologue (Toronto: Macmillan, 1963),
21 J. M. Lyle, "Canadian Architecture," JRAIC, vol. IV, no. 2 (February 1927), pp. 62-63.
22 Massey, op. cit., pp. 24-25, 52-57. Hart House was
named for Vincent Massey's grandfather Hart A. Massey (1823-1896).
23 TSA, no. 224; Construction, vol. VIII, no.5
(May 1920), issue devoted to Hart House; Hart House, University of Toronto (Toronto, 1921); J. B. Bickersteth, "Hart House,"
vol. XL, no. 1 (January 1924), pp. 11-17; Wright, op. cit., pp.
8-9, 15-18; Lyle, "Canadian Architecture," p. 63; Montagnes, op. cit.,
24 Lyle, "Canadian Architecture," pp. 63-67; E. R. Arthur, "Toronto
Chapter, O. A. A., Architectural Exhibition," JRAIC, vol. IV, no. 4 (April 1927), pp. 141-144.
25 Lyle, "Canadian Architecture," pp. 63-64; Lyle, "Sproatt
& Rolph," pp. 133-135; Ontario Association of Architects, Exhibition
of Architecture and Applied Arts (Toronto: Art Gallery of Toronto [OAA],
1929), nos 204-205 (reredos only).
26 C. B. Sproatt, "Emmanuel College and Residences, Victoria
University, Toronto," JRAIC, vol. IX, no.8 (August 1932), pp. 180-188.
27 The interior is illustrated in JRAIC, vol. XII, no.12
(December 1935), p. 194.
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