Vollard, and Lithography: The Ottawa Maquette for the
"Large Bathers" Colour Lithograph
by Douglas W. Druick
| 10 | 11
88 Both works were in the possession of Vollard until his death in
1939. The Ottawa version entered the National Gallery of Canada in
May 1940, along with many other works from the dealer's collection.
There it was housed for thirty years until its purchase by the
Gallery in 1970. The dimensions of the sheet on which the lithograph
is printed are slightly larger than in the case of the sheets of the
regular edition; the paper (Canson Frères or Fils -"Ingres"
variety) is also of different manufacture from that used, seemingly
exclusively, in the regular edition (MBM Arches -"Ingres"
variety). This indicates that the impression may have been pulled
specifically in order to be used in the preparation of a maquette.
Pin-pricks in the corners of the sheet indicate that the work was
pinned to a board by the printer in order to serve as a convenient
The version in the collection of Mrs Steinberg passed from the
Vollard estate into the hands of Édouard Jonas, who was involved in
the settlement of the estate. The dealer M. Marcel Guiot purchased
the work from Mr Jonas, but the latter re-acquired it from M. Guiot
in 1953 and sold it to Mrs Steinberg in 1954. (I am indebted to the
following persons for having provided me with the information
which allowed me to establish the provenance of this work: M. Marcel
Guiot, Paris, letter dated 27 January 1971; M. Marcel Lecomte,
Paris, letter dated 25 March 1971; Mr Mark Weil, St. Louis, letter
dated 25 January 1971; M. A. C. Mazo, Paris, in a conversation, June
1971.) The margins of this work were trimmed during framing and the
paper is glued down. It is, therefore, impossible to discover the
original size and condition of the sheet, as well as the manufacture of the paper, and thereby to make comparisons with the Ottawa
89 The Baigneurs et baigneuses (V .110, c. 1895) and
the Study for « Les baigneuses, » c. 1895 (fig. 16) are good
examples for comparison with the Ottawa and Steinberg maquettes. In
each, the overall effect is achieved through the orchestration of
purplish-blue, blue, greenish-yellow, yellowish-green, and
bluish-green. Comparison of the watercolours with the Ottawa
maquette reveals noticeable similarities in the details of colour
application: the pale red which appears in the cheeks of the bathers
in V. 1110 and in the Study also appears in the face of the
centre bather in the Ottawa maquette. The comparable figures of
the bather, far left, of the Ottawa version (fig. 2), and the bather
at left in the Study (fig. 16), have both been given a touch
of pink in the left heel. Furthermore, in both works pale-red washes
are similarly applied over areas of blue and green. The use of
ochres is comparable in V. III0 and in the Ottawa maquette.
90 Roger-Marx, Les lithographies de Renoir, under catalogue
entry no. 5. The colour print is reproduced opposite catalogue entry
91 An example of this state, referred to by collectors as the demi
colorée, is in the Brooklyn Museum, inv. no. 41.1091.
92 This maquette, which I have seen, was purchased by M. Mazo from
Clot's son (information kindly supplied by M. A. C. Mazo, Paris, in a
conversation in June 1971).
93 Information kindly supplied by M. A. C. Mazo, Paris, in a
conversation in June 1971.
94 Information kindly made available by M. Hubert Prouté, Paris.
While Johnson indicates that the "Tirages à cent exemplaires
no...," was written in manuscript (op. cit., p. 69),
both the inscription and the signature beneath it are, in fact, in
the stone. Only the numerals which seldom accompany the
inscription were added by hand - a hand probably not Cézanne's.
95 Vollard's inclination to utilize all possible marketable
resources is underscored by the fact that in the early 1900s the
dealer purchased some pastels from Mary Cassatt from which he then
had Clot execute counterproofs. CL Adelyn
96 Cf. Jean Goriany, op. cit., p. 123. Between the two states,
Goriany notes only "various slight modifications in the colour
painting:." Comparison of examples of both states (collection of Paul
and Hubert Prouté, Paris) revealed differences in the forms of the
colour areas. Particularly noticeable in the foliage of the
tree at left and in the hillock on which the figure, left, sits, these differences can
be discerned in the reproductions included in Goriany's article (p. 124).
97 The demi colorée state
follows the Mazo maquette with considerable fidelity. Similarly, as
will be noted, the Large Bathers colour lithograph follows
the Ottawa maquette in almost every detail.Home
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98 Information kindly supplied by M. A. C. Mazo, Paris, in a
conversation in June 1971.
99 In the catalogue entry for the Large Bathers, Johnson (op.
p. 68) records "Signature: 'P. Cézanne' lower right
margin." Furthermore, she notes that there exist "several
trial proofs before the signature on the stone." It is unclear
whether this is a reference to the black (that is, keystone)
impressions or the impressions in colour. In fact, the signature
"P. Cézanne" in the lower right corner of the image is in
the keystone and appears in all impressions that I know of. The
trial proofs of the first state do, however, lack the printed
inscription and the second signature ("P. Cézanne") in
the lower right margin of the sheet (cf., for example, the colour
impression, Museum of Modern Art, New York,
100 Many of the colour forms are precisely retained only in the
state represented by the Metropolitan's impression (see for example,
fig. 15, diagram areas nos 3, 6, 9). In the preparation of the
colour stones for the second state, the tracings were not as
scrupulously executed. Colour forms are more generalized (fig. 17).
This is particularly evident in the ground plane. For details which
are altered only in the second state, see, for example, diagram are
as nos 2, 11, 13. Closer conformity to the maquette is, however,
evident in diagram area no. 1 of the second state. Furthermore, absence
of colour in diagram area no. 13 marks a return to the maquette.
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