Vollard, and Lithography: The Ottawa Maquette for the
"Large Bathers" Colour LithographHome
| Français | Introduction
by Douglas W. Druick
| 9 | 10
52 John Rewald (ed.), Paul
Cézanne: Letters, trans.
Marguerite Kay (London: Bruno Cassirer, 1941), pp. 217, 220, 221,
53 Vollard, Recollections of a Picture Dealer, p. 247.
54 Johnson, op. cit., pp. 15, 193. Johnson describes fourteen
prints as having been "executed for the third but unpublished
des peintres-graveurs, 1898- " (e.g. J. 30, 31). This implies
that they were commissioned for a specific publication when this
was not, in fact, the case. Renoir executed the Mère et enfant
(J. 141) and the Baigneuse debout (J. 142) in 1896.
The former was used in the album of the same year whereas the latter
was to be included in the third album (Johnson, op. cit., p.
124). It is obvious that Vollard was not commissioning works in
1896 for a publication which would not appear until 1899 at the
earliest. Furthermore, the fact that Chagal's etching L'acrobate
(J. 34) of 1925 is included in the list of works destined for the
third album (Johnson, op. cit., p. 193) makes it apparent that
Vollard's habit was to commission works and then find a place for
them. This fact is of significance in the attempt to date the
lithographs of Cézanne.
55 Mellerio, La lighographie originale en couleurs, pp. 18,
19. Rodin's contribution to the second album was a drawing of
which Clot made a facsirnile (Johnson, op. cit., p. 136).
56 Mellerio, La lithographie originale en couleurs, p. 22.
57 For example, Claude Roger-Marx, French Original Engraving from Manet to the Present
Time (New York: Hyperion Press,
1939), p. 45.
58 The information Mellerio provides is not always correct. In
his review of Vollard's second album, Mellerio referred to Puvis' Le
pauvre pécheur (J. 131) as the "première tentative du maître
dans l'estampe" ("Exposition de la deuxième année de l'album
d'estampes originales; galerie Vol lard, 6, rue Lafitte,"
p. 10). Puvis had, however, previously done lithographs for L'estampe originale
59 This information comes from two different sources. Jean
Goriany in his "Notes-on Prints: Cézanne's Lithograph The
Bathers" Gazette des Beaux Arts, vol. 23 [February 1943], p.
123, 124), dismisses the theory that Clot made the stones for the
Small Bathers after a watercolour drawing by the artist. He states
that he was "informed by...Mr Atherton Curtis, that Clot had
told him that the actual drawing on the stone [that is, for the
black keystone] for the Small Bathers had been done by Cézanne
himself." Mr Henri Petiet, a Paris collector and dealer who
knows the Vollard publications thoroughly, remembers having
received similar information from Curtis, who cited Clot as the
source of his information (information kindly supplied by M.
Hubert Prouté, Paris, in a letter dated 3 May 1971).
60 For example, Claude Roger-Marx, "Les peintres-graveurs
français à la bibliothèque nationale," Beaux-Arts (31 March
1933), p. I. Gustav von Groschwitz, "The Significance of XIX
Century Color Lithography," Gazette des Beaux Arts, vol. 44
July-December 1954), p. 258. Apparently von Groschwitz rejects the
possibility that Cézanne worked directly on the stone because he
misunderstands Goriany's statement as implying that Cézanne
prepared all the stones for the Small Bathers (p. 259, n. 20).
Clearly Goriany was discussing only the execution of the keystone
from which the black-and-white impressions (fig. 9) were pulled.
61 The impressions on simili japon are not noted in the Johnson
catalogue (op. cit., J. 31, p. 69).
62 Examination of an impression on simili japon (Bibliothèque
nationale, Paris, fol. Dc 461) leads to the conclusion that Cézanne
used a commercially-grained transfer paper known as papier
This was a popular brand of transfer paper, recommended in E.
Duchatel's contemporary treatise on lithography, Traité de
lithographie artistique (Paris: Chez l'auteur, 1893), pp. 47 fr.
Duchatel includes lithographs executed by means of this paper on
plate 13. The paper was available in three grades of fineness.
63 The Venturi entry (op. cit., vol. I, p. 287) states that the
lithograph is a repetition of the composition treated in the earlier
64 I am indebted to Richard Schiff Yale University, for his assistance
in the clarification of the date of this painting.
65 Venturi himself dates this watercolour, Baigfleurs et
baigneuses (V.III0), to the period 1890-1900. Stylistically
as compositionally, the work is related to a watercolour of Bathers
in the collection of Mr and Mrs Taft Schreiber, Beverly Hills (not
cited in Venturi). The Schreiber water-colour has been assigned to
the period 1895-1900 (cf. Columbia University, Cézanne
Watercolours, an exhibition at Knoedler & Co., New York, 2-20
April 1963, cat. no. 49, p. 48, repr. pl. XXXIX). Similarly V. 1110 should be assigned to the same period.
66 See, for example, V. 582, 589, 590, 591.
67 The figure about to descend into the water is seen in the
drawings V. 1411, 1412, 1413 of the late eighties or early nineties and in a drawing of the
mid-nineties published as cat. no. 191 in
Wayne Andersen, Cézanne's Portrait Drawings (Cambridge: The
MIT Press, 1970), repr. p. 178. The same figure also appears in the
watercolour entitled Study for "les baigneuses" (fig.
16) for which a date of c. 1895 seems appropriate.
68 For example, V. 1453, 1463, 1626.
69 For example, V. 707.
70 In working directly on the stone, one must avoid touching,
sneezing on, or breathing on its surface since deposits of
moisture wi1l be recorded in the impression. In the light of these
problems, Duchatel (op. cit., p. 33) noted that by using
transfer paper the artist, unaccustomed to drawing on the stone, can
work with greater "hardiesse." For just this reason the
Société des peintres-lithographes, founded in 1895, recommended
that artists use transfer paper (cf. the article on transfer
lithography written by Henri Hamel, the president of the Société
in 1896, which is preserved in the Suite des critiques de
l'oeuvre de Fantin-Latour, Bibliothèque nationale, Paris,
Yb3 / 2747, p. 39). Even Fantin-Latour, a prolific lithographer,
admitted to having experienced fear at the prospect of directly
attacking the stone.
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