Marlborough and Kneller: Home
| Français | Introduction
Painting and "Protest" in the Age of Queen Anne
by Douglas Stewart
| 2 | 3
1 See R. H. Hubbard, ed., The National Gallery of Canada Catalogue
of Paintings and Sculpture, Volume I: Older Schools (Ottawa,
1957, rpt. 1961), p. 115. The picture was acquired from the
collection of a descendant of Chandos, Lord Henniker, Thornham Hall,
Suffolk, in 1937. The catalogue entry contains the references to it
in the earlier literature and exhibitions. There is an apparently
original addition of a ten-inch strip of canvas at the bottom.
2 For the latest account of the rebuilding of Cannons, which began
in 1713, see Kerry Downes, English Baroque Architecture (London:
Zwemmer, 1966), pp. 87-88. The architects successively employed were
William Talman, John James and James Gibbs, but according to Downes,
the fronts as constructed were essentially the work of the latter.
3 I am very grateful to my colleague Mr. Pierre du Prey for the
information, not generally known, about the present whereabouts of
the staircase. (It is sometimes said to have been destroyed in
London during World War II). According to Mr. Morrison Hecksher of
the Metropolitan Museum, the iron work is probably by Jean Montigny.
For the Chapel - probably designed by Gibbs - which also
contains contemporary paintings and stained glass, see F. J. B.
Watson, "A Venetian Settecento Chapel in the English
Countryside", Arte Veneta, vol. VIII (1954), pp.
There is a monument to the Duke and his first two wives in the
church of St. Lawrence, Whitchurch (Edgware Road), a very grand affair
with three figures, by Grinling Gibbons. See David Green, Grinling
Gibbons (London: Country Life, 1964), pp. 167-69, pl. 246.
4 C. H. Collins Baker and Muriel I. Baker, The Life and
Circumstances of James Brydges, First Duke of Chandos, Patron of the
Liberal Arts (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1949), p. 83 (hereinafter
referred to as Collins Baker). For a review of this, with additional
material on Cannons and the Duke's other architectural projects, see
H. Colvin, "Princely Chandos", The Listener, vol.
XLII (1949), p. 732.
I am very grateful to the editor, Mr. Myron Laskin, Jr., for this
last reference and for other helpful suggestions with this article.
5 The Poussin was in the Chandos sale, 7 May 1747, at Cock's,
London, lot 119. See Anthony Blunt, The Paintings of Nicolas
Poussin: Critical Catalogue (London: Phaidon Press, 1966),
no.159. A miniature copy is referred to in note 6 below.
6 The picture is referred to in two letters of 1713 from the Duke
to the artist that are preserved among the Chandos papers at the
Huntington Library, San Marino, California (HM ST 57, pp. 225, 281).
In the first, dated 15 October, the Duke writes: "I shd be glad
if ye frame for my wife's picture cd be finished & ye picture
Set in it & cas'd up that Mr Zollicoffre [Chandos's secretary)
might have it to send down into ye Country. As also ye family
picture, wch you gave me hopes shd be finished last week." By
December the picture was probably finished since on the 7th Chandos
informed Kneller that "I have Sent to Mr Lence' for ye Pictures he has made from ye family piece." "Mr Lence"
is doubtless Bernard Lens, the miniaturist (1682-1740), who was
revolutionizing the practice of miniature painting in England at
this time by the use of ivory. His miniature copy of the Poussin Choice
of Hercules that belonged to Chandos (see note 5 above) is
known. See Graham Reynolds, English Portrait Miniatures, Library
of English Art Series (London: A. C. Black, 1952), p. 107.
Presumably it was commissioned by the Duke.
I am very
grateful to Miss Anne Caiger, Assistant Archivist in the Manuscript
Department of the Huntington Library, for her patience, kindness and
knowledge in answering my enquiries concerning the Chandos papers,
and to the Librarian, Mr. Robert Dougan, for granting me permission to cite from them.
7 See British Museum, Catalogue of British Drawings, vol. I:
XVI & XVII Centuries, text by E. Croft-Murray and Paul
Hulton (London, 1960), p. 215, no. 3f.lr. For the complex problem of
identifying Byng, one of Kneller's last pupils, and the various
hands in the Byng sketch books, see especially pp. 204-07.
8 George Vertue, Note Books, Vol. II, Walpole Society, vol.
20 (Oxford University Press, 1932), p. 80.
9 See Philippe Ariès, Centuries of Childhood: a Social History of Family
Life, trans. by Robert Baldick (New York: Knopf,
1962), Ch. III, passim. I am indebted to Dr. Paul
Christianson for this reference.
The two Chandos boys are tragic witnesses to the terrible level
of child mortality in the eighteenth century. John (1703-27) was the Duke's fourth son but
the first to survive,
while Henry (1708-71), the sixth and youngest son, was the only one
to live to maturity. Nor was Cassandra Chandos' last wife. She died
in 1735. The following year the Duke married his last Duchess,
Lydia, who outlived him, dying in 1750. See G. E. Cokayne, The
Complete Peerage (London: St. Catherine Press, 1910-59).
10. The Spectator, introd. and notes by G. A. Aitken (London: John C.
Nimmo, and New York: Longmans Green, 1898), vol. 2,
p. 12 (issue no. 83, Tuesday 5 June 1711).
11. Collins Baker, p. xiv.
12. For a portrait of John, 2nd Duke of Rutland (d. 1721), in the
collection of the Countess of Gainsborough. The portrait is
inscribed as being of the 1st Duke, who died in 1711, but variants
at Belvoir and in the collection of Dr. G. E. Finley, Kingston,
Ont., in which the same head is used make it clear that this is
13 This change in Kneller's style was probably partly the result of
contact with the works of the two Venetian rococo painters, Marco
Ricci and Gianantonio Pellegrini, who were brought to England in
1708 by the Earl of Manchester; see M. Whinney and O. Millar, English
Art, 1625-1714 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957), pp. 307-10.
Pellegrini was one of the original members of the 1711 London
Academy, of which Kneller was the first Governor; see G. Vertue, op.
cit., p. 7 and Note Books, vol. VI, Walpole Society, vol.
30 (Oxford University Press, 1955), pp. 168-69.
Next Page | Notes
14 to 25
| 2 | 3
Top of this page
Index | Author
& Subject | Credits | Contact
This digital collection
was produced under contract to Canada's Digital Collections program,
Collections Program, Copyright
© National Gallery of