Klimt's "Hope I"Home
| Français | Introduction
by Johannes Dobai
| 4 | 5
1 Oil on canvas, 74 1/2 x 26 3/8 in., purchased from Galleria
Galatea, Turin, 1970. Further details in Fritz Novotny and Johannes
Dobai, Gustav Klimt: with a Catalogue Raisonné of His Paintings,
trans. by Karen Olga Philippson (London: Thames &Hudson, and
New York: Praeger, 1968), no.129 (hereinafter referred to as
Novotny-Dobai). Bibliography subsequent to Novotny-Dobai and
Christian M. Nebehay , Gustav Klimt Dokumentation, Vienna,
1969, pp. 417, 428ff: Werner Hoffmann, Gustav Klimt und die
Wiener Jahrhundertwende, Salzburg, 1970, p. 49 and pl. 26. Myron
Laskin, Jr., "Hope I by Gustav Klimt", Burlington
Magazine, February, 1972, p. 122.
Hope I was also exhibited in Angst tmd Hoffnung in unserer
Zeit, Darmstadt, 1965; Il sacro e il profano nell' arte dei
Simbolisti, Turin, Galleria Civica d' Arte Moderna, 1969,
no.369; and The Sacred and Profane in Symbolist Art, Toronto,
Art Gallery of Ontario, 1969, no. 345. (Two allegedly related
drawings were in the Sonderausstellung Gustav Klimt - Henri
Matisse, Darmstadt, Mathildenhohe, 1970, nos. 55, 56.
2 Novotny-Dobai, no.155.
3 Ludwig Hevesi, "Zur Klimt Ausstellung, 15 November
1903", in his Acht jahre Secession (Marz 1897 - Juni 1905):
Kritik-polemik-chronik (Vienna: C. Konegen, 1906), p. 446.
4 Novotny-Dobai, no.128. According to Hevesi, Klimt worked at Jurisprudence
until July 1903, and again after the summer holidays. For the
history of the three paintings, see Alice Strobl, "Zu den
Fakultiitsbildern von Gustav Klimt", Albertina Studien, no.
(1964), pp. 138-69. For reactions by critics, see also Christian
Nebehay, Gustav Klimt: Dokumentation (Vienna: Nebehay,
1969), ch. XVII, XIX, XXV (hereinafter referred to as Nebehay).
5 Hevesi, loc. cit.
6 Ludwig Hevesi, "Das Haus Waerndorfer (1905)", in Altkunst-Neukunst,
Wien 1894-1908 (Vienna, 1909), p. 223.
7 The interview with Klimt was published in the Wiener
Allgemeine Zeitung of 12 April 1905; reprinted, with notes on
text variations, in Strobl, pp. 161-63.
8 Referring, of course, to the University paintings commission.
9 For identification of the "shocking" painting as Hope
I, see Strobl, p. 169, n. 115 (With archival documentation).
10 No. 101 of this exhibition.
11 "Dear Fritz, the painting is totally unfinished, especially
in the figures, heads, hands; it is, in its present form, incomprehensible (artistically incomprehensible). I can't believe it will
ever amount to anything. I count on having the painting back by
Friday morning. Greetings, Gustav Klimt" (Karl Moser, "Unbekannte Briefe Gustav Klimts: Wie der grosse Maler
schuf", Neues Wiener Journal, 3 January 1932, p. 10;
also in Nebehay, p. 436, n. 2.
A thorough technical examination has been made of the picture in
the National Gallery laboratory by Ursus Dix and J. McGregor Grant.
The canvas is painted extremely thinly. There are no changes in
composition evident in X-rays and if Klimt only a few years later did
make various refinements or adjustments to the surface, or added
glazes, these can only have been superficial and unimportant.
12 Hevesi, "Das Haus Waerndorfer", loc. cit.
13 Ludwig Hevesi, "lnternationale Kunstschau, Wien 1909", Zeitschrift für Bildende Kunst,
New Series vol. 20 (1909),
pp. 221 ff:
15 William Butler Yeats, "Symbolism in Painting", in his
and Introductions (London: Macmillan, 1961), pp. 146-52.
16 See, for instance, Gunnar Berefelt, "On Symbol and
Allegory", in Konsthistoriska studier tillägnade Sten
Karling, ed. by Erik Forssman, Brita Linde and Armin Tuulse
(Stockholm: Konsthistoriska institutionem, Kungliga Universitet,
1966), pp. 321-40.
17 Novotny-Dobai, no.113.
18 Robert Pincus-Witten, "The Iconography of Symbolist Painting",
vol. 8, January 1970, pp. 56-62. I wish to thank Dr. Myron
Laskin, Jr., for having brought this essay to my attention and for
having made it available to me.
19 Ibid., p. 62.
20 For example, see Johannes Dobai, "Zu Gustav Klimt's
Gemalde Der Kuss", Mitteilungen der osterreichischen Galerie
(Vienna), vol. 12 (1968), pp. 115-16.
21 Hevesi, "Das Haus Waerndorfer", pp. 223-24.
22 Arthur Roessler, "Klimt und seine Modelle", Arbeiter-zeitung (Vienna), 15 August 1953, p. 10. See also Nebehay,
23 Novotny-Dobai, no.112. The oil sketch (no. 88) had already been
criticized as immoral but did not contain a pregnant woman.
24 Hevesi, Achtjahre Secession, p. 317.
25 See illustrations of the stages in Novotny-Dobai, no. 112;
better still in Nebehay , ch. XIX, where the state of the painting
during the exhibition in the spring of 1901 is shown in figs.
340 and 349.
26. See Nebehay, figs. 346-48.
27. On Aubrey Beardsley, see Brian Reade, Beardsley, in
trod. by John Rothenstein (London: Studio Vista, 1967), introd. and
no. 269, repr. pl. 273.
28. Munch's print is Schiefler no. 33. The interpretation by Edith
Hoffman, "Some Sources for Munch's Symbolism", Apollo, vol.
81 (1965), pp. 88-89.
Next Page | Notes
29 to 60
| 4 | 5
Top of this page
Index | Author
& Subject | Credits | Contact
This digital collection
was produced under contract to Canada's Digital Collections program,
Collections Program, Copyright
© National Gallery of